The Sandemanization as a tool of British Policy towards Baluchistan and its Impacts on Religious Education of Muslims during 1866-1877


  • Dr. Naseem Akhter Associate Professor, Department of Islamic Studies Shaheed Benazir Bhutto Women University, Peshawar, Pakistan.
  • Dr. Shumaila Rafiq Department of Islamic Studies, Shaheed Benazir Bhutto Women University, Peshawar, PakistanUniversity,
  • Dr. Sohail Akhtar Lecturer History Ghazi University, D.G. Khan, Pakistan



Sandeman, British, Dera Ghazi Khan, Forward Policy, Religion, Muslims etc.


British invasion started with victory of Bengal at Plassy in 1757 and they moved to Delhi in 1803. Initially East India Company started the British rule and their major goal was revenue. After 1839 British forces crossed the Indus and with occupation and annexation of Sindh and Punjab respectively. The followed the Close Border Policy till 1866. But with the fear of Russian invasion, British forces intervened in the tribal area especially Dera Ghazi Khan. Sir Robert Sandeman, of Scandinavian descent, popularly known as the Summons among the Baloch, was awarded the title of Conqueror of Balochistan in government circles. As the Deputy Commissioner of Dera Ghazi Khan, he rendered excellent services to the imperialist government. He paved the way for a peaceful advancement towards Balochistan by encouraging the local leadership to pursue financial and administrative interests. The main motive was to occupy the sources and collect revenue from this region In 1866, when he was appointed as Deputy Commissioner of Dera Ghazi Khan he proved his ability of dealing with local leadership of Baloch tribes. It was the first important break-through against the close-border system policy of Mr. Lord Lawrence. Sandeman tried the extending British influence not only in occupied areas but extended it to the entire independent tribes and also beyond the border. At last this policy was appreciated and admirably, owing to his tact in managing the tribesmen. In 1876, he negotiated and successfully signed a peaceful treaty with the ruler Khan of Kalat, which subsequently governed the relations between Kalat and the Indian government. Although this policy was against the Russian invasion and they formed Dera Ghazi Khan as buffer state. While Government considered the religion as social institution and they did not involve on large scale against the Muslim’s religious customs and rites except educational system. Muslims rejected British educational system against their religion and this element proved economically and socially harmful for the Muslim of this region. This paper highlights the Sandemanzation and its impact on Dera Ghazi Khan to Baluchistan and Kalat.