Rational Foundations of Criticism on Ḥadīth & Sources: Comparative Study on Research Methodology of Moḥadithīns & Orientalists
With the narration and compilation of the hadīth, Moḥadithīns made special efforts against the liars and in identification of unauthentic aḥādīth. As a result, such principles were developed that any ancient and modern nation of the world is unable to have its precedent. In particular, the narrations that have been examined on the basis of chain criticism (science of excavation) are their own example. Moḥadithīns determined that any ḥadīth narrated by the holy Prophet (pbuh) would be examined on some strict terms. Then, to achieve this target, numerous sciences of ḥadīth have been developed. In the beginning, some orientalists also praised these principles and sciences of the ḥadīth. Later on, most commentators came to the conclusion that the number of correct aḥadīth was far less than that mentioned by Muslim critics in the authentic collections of aḥādīth. Mostly orientalists criticized the principles of the aḥādīth, calling them inaccurate and incomplete rationally and logically. They claimed that the authenticity of a ḥadīth checked on the basis of these principles, is doubtful and they reviewed the ḥadīth on some self-made principles. This article is a comparative study on research methodology of Moḥadithīns and orientalists regarding foundations of criticism on ḥadīth.